b.Graphene based materials for biomedical applications（DNA）
Schematic illustration of the constraint of DNA molecules on functionalized graphene and its effects. Single stranded DNA can be effectively constrained on the surface of graphene through adsorption.
c.Flow Sensing of Single Cell by Graphene Transistor in a Microfluidic Channel
Graphene-based detection of single Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte (PE). (a) (Left) Schematic illustration of an array of graphene transistors on quartz. The electrodes are protected by a SU-8 photoresist that conveniently acts as the side wall for the microfluidic channel through which cells flow. (Right) Specific binding between ligands located on positively charged membrane knobs of parasitized erythrocyte and CD36 receptors on graphene channel produces a distinct conductance change. Conductance returns to baseline value when parasitized erythrocyte exits the graphene channel. (b) DIC image of independent graphene transistors with SU-8/PDMS microfluidic channel. Inset shows the etched graphene strip between source and drain electrodes. Scale bar is 30 μm. (c) Three-dimensional AFM images of (left) parasitized erythrocyte (scale bar is 1 μm) and (right) 3D height plot of the surface of parasitized erythrocyte revealing protruding knobs which overlaid with adhesion maps of knob ligands (PfEMP1) using CD36-functionalized AFM tip (yellow regions).